Phytochemistry. 2013 Sep;93:116-23. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.03.017. Epub 2013 May 2.
Kaurane diterpenes from Sideritis spp. exert a cytoprotective effect against oxidative injury that is associated with modulation of the Nrf2 system.
González-Burgos E, Carretero ME, Gómez-Serranillos MP.

Kaurane diterpenes have been shown to possess antioxidant properties. As a part of our ongoing studies on the identification of biologically active diterpenes from Sideritis spp., we have previously isolated and structurally elucidated the major kaurane diterpenes foliol, linearol and sidol, in a previous study from the aerial parts of Sideritis linearifolia and Sideritis leucantha. We have now examined the ability of these compounds to protect PC12 cells in an H2O2-induced oxidative stress model. Linearol and sidol (5 and 10 μM, 24 h) significantly attenuated loss of mitochondrial function (MTT assay) and membrane integrity (LDH assay) and morphological changes associated with H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, pretreatments with linearol and sidol effectively reduced intracellular ROS production, decreased MDA levels (lipid peroxidation product) and restored GSH/GSSG ratio. Furthermore, analysis of the effect of diterpenes on antioxidant enzymes showed that linearol and sidol induced the upregulation and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes CAT, SOD, GPx, GR and HO-1. Considering molecular mechanisms for maintaining cellular redox homeostasis by linearol and sidol, it would appear that the Nrf2 transcription factor seems to be involved. These results indicate that linearol and sidol are potential cytoprotective compounds